What are gross motor milestones?
- Milestones are a set of age-specific tasks that most children can do at a particular age.
- Gross motor milestones include using large muscles to perform functional tasks like sitting, standing, walking, running, and balancing.
How do I know if my child has delayed gross motor milestones?
- This list is a guide. If your child is not meeting these milestones at the appropriate age, please follow up as quickly as possible with your physician.
- The earlier therapy is started, the more beneficial it can be to prevent further delays.
The First Year
- When lying on belly, turns head to both sides.
- Kicks both legs alternating.
- When lying on belly, lifts head to 45 degrees.
- When lying on belly, lifts head to90 degrees.
- When lying on belly, pushes up with both arms.
- When pulled to sit, doesn’t let head flop back.
- Rolls from belly to back.
- When on belly, pushes up onto hands and knees.
- When on belly, reaches for toys.
- Sits without help for 30 seconds.
- Rolls from back to belly.
- On belly, starts scooting to get around.
- Transitions from lying on back to sitting and onto hands and knees.
- When supported in standing, takes one step.
- Pulls to standing using furniture.
- Lowers self from standing to the floor.
- Cruises while holding onto furniture.
- Walks with one hand held.
- Stands alone.
The Second Year
- Walks by him/herself.
- Crawls up stairs.
- Throws a ball in standing.
- Walks well (stops, starts, turns).
- Walks backward.
- When playing, squats down to pick up a toy then returns to standing without holding onto something.
- Starts running.
- Walks sideways.
- Walks up stairs with one hand held.
- Climbs into adult sized chair.
- Stands on one foot with help.
- Walks down stairs with one hand held.
- Jumps in place.
- Goes up and down stairs alone with both feet on each step.
- Stands on a balance beam with both feet and attempts to step.
- Kicks ball.
- Jumps from the bottom step.
- Walks on tiptoes.
- Throws ball 5 to 7 feet.
- Takes a few steps on balance beam.
- Stands up from the ground through a half kneeling position.
- Rides tricycle using pedals.
- Walks up stairs with only one foot on each step.
- Stands on one foot.
3-3 ½ years
- Runs and is able to turn sharp corners without losing balance.
- Jumps forward 3 times on both feet.
- Climbs on playground equipment.
3 ½-4 years
- Walks down stairs with one foot on each step using handrail.
- Jumps from a 12” height with feet together.
- Hops on one foot 3 times in a row.
4-4 ½ years
- Stands on one foot for 6 seconds.
- Walks on balance beam.
- Walks in a circle 3 times fast without falling.
- Walks up and down stairs without rail with only one foot on each step.
- Runs smoothly at varying speeds.
- Jumps forward 8-10 inches.
- Kicks and catches a large ball.
- Rides a tricycle expertly.
4 ½-5 years
- Stands with heel of one foot touching the toe of the other foot for 10 seconds.
- Jumps backward 6 times.
- Slides down a slide and swings self on a swing.
5-5 ½ years
- Walks on balance beam forward, backward, and sideward.
- Runs 35 yards in 10 seconds.
- Hops 15 yards in 10 seconds.
- Catches a bounced tennis ball.
- Skips or gallops.
- Uses skates and a scooter well.
5 ½ -6 years
- Catches bean bag with one hand.
- Throws with accuracy.
- Kicks a rolling ball.
- Rides a bicycle with or without training wheels.